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Choosing fence posts means taking various factors into account. U posts and T posts both have pros and cons and you have to choose what will work best for your fencing needs. You will have to keep in mind the animals you’re containing or keeping out, the shape of the terrain, the soil, your long-term plans for fencing, and your budget. A fence is a big investment and it is only as strong as the fence posts to which it is secured.
A sturdy fence is necessary for large animals that may lean against or try to jump over it. Shaky, small posts will not withstand this. A large, sturdy fence is not really necessary if it’s not in harsh conditions and doesn’t have to keep animals in or out. U posts are generally heavier duty and used in fencing for larger animals such as horses and cattle. T posts are easier to drive in and reuse. They are commonly used to protect poultry or gardens.
The first obvious difference between a U post and a T post is the shape. U posts have a U-shaped cross-section, while T posts look like the letter T. Both types of posts come in a range of lengths. T posts come in six, seven and eight-foot lengths and range from lighter ones to heavier ones that can withstand more pressure.
U posts also come in various lengths ranging from about three to seven feet. When selecting the correct length for your project, you need to choose a post that is taller than your finished fence because it has to be buried at least two feet deep to prevent weather conditions or animals from pulling them out.
U posts have holes punched along the posts that enable them to be surely attached to the fencing wire. T posts are punched or studded and when they are studded, they require wire clips to securely attach them to the fencing wire to keep it in place and prevent excessive movement. Wrapping wire clips around T posts and fence wire requires the use of bending tools or fence pliers.
Both treated wood and steel T posts are popular materials for use in wire fence construction. Treated wood posts are quite expensive and are more suitable for shorter boundary fences.
Using wood for fence posts can look aesthetically pleasing and can be a great option for various types of wire fencing. When compared to treated wood fence posts, metal posts are easy to install and more affordable. T posts are usually manufactured using metal like rail steel. They are very practical when you have a large area to fence.
Both U posts and T posts are easy to install. Steel posts weigh less than wood posts so they are easier to install. An anchor plate at the bottom of the posts keeps them secure and upright. If animals are going to put more pressure on the outside of the fence, you need to face posts with the studs inward and if animals will put more pressure on the outside of the fence, you need to direct the studs inwards.
The simplest way to drive in T posts is with a manual or automatic post driver and if one isn’t available, you can use a sledgehammer or a hammer. U posts can have a spade which adds stability as it increases the contact area with the ground but one without the spade is easier to hammer into the ground.
Depending on use, fence posts are usually spaced six feet apart. The distance should be determined by the type of fence and how much support it needs to stay taut. The closer the poles are, the stronger the fence will be.
U posts are generally more affordable than T posts and both types of posts are usually sold in bundles of 10 or pallets of 50 bundles. Finally, it depends more on what quality you need and what’s the purpose of fencing. The price should always be a secondary factor and if your budget allows, you should buy only the best.
An electric fence makes a barrier that people or animals don’t cross because it gives them a short and safe but memorable electric shock. This creates a psychological as well as a physical barrier. Many farmers use an electric fence to keep livestock from straying. As the livestock learn not to touch the fence, it lasts longer than traditional fencing.
High tensile wire needs to be kept in place to work properly. When tightening electric fence wire, you have to make sure it isn’t too tight or too loose. You don’t want it to break or to trail close to the ground.
An electric fence consists of a number of components. The fence energizer emits a pulse of current and the high tensile wire conducts the power. Insulators insulate the power from the posts so the current won’t flow to the ground.
An electric fence is designed to create an electrical circuit when it is touched. One terminal of the power energizer releases an electric pulse along the connected wire about once per second. Another terminal connects to a metal rod called the earth spike. When a person or animal touches the wire, this completes the electrical circuit and causes the electric shock.
High tensile fence wire can take a great deal of force without breaking so wire tightening devices have been developed to tighten and loosen the wires. There are different types of wire tightening tools, such as inline strainers, each with advantages and disadvantages.
The Daisy wheel is probably the most popular way to tension wires for a couple of reasons. The first is because it is less expensive and the second reason is it can be put on the wire without cutting it. The wire slides inside the Daisy wheel and it is turned to tighten the wire.
When placing wire strainers, it is important to place them correctly or it becomes difficult to get even tension along the fence. A halfway position along the run makes this possible, rather than if one is placed near one end.
For most applications, the wires shouldn’t sag between the posts. They should be kept off the ground and at a height that the animals aren’t inclined to jump over them. This doesn’t mean you have to remove every bit of sag and an inch or two won’t make much difference. The only exception is small animal fencing where wires may be much closer to the ground. In this case, you can’t allow the wire to sag to the ground and this can be difficult to manage if the terrain is uneven.
Putting too much tension on the wires is a mistake. As the wires contract and expand with changing weather conditions, this can put too much pressure on the poles and they could even start coming out of the ground.
Pumpkins are generally easy to grow as long as they get enough sun, have ample room to grow and get the right amount of water. Pumpkin plant leaves may turn yellow for various reasons, such as age, nutrient deficiencies, infestation with pests or diseases. In most cases, yellowing leaves are a sign of plant stress.
Sometimes yellow pumpkin leaves don’t indicate a problem at all. At the end of the growing season, when the harvest is ready and the pumpkins are ripe, the older leaves at the base of the crown start to die back. If the growing season is coming to an end, the yellowing leaves are likely to be part of the natural life cycle of the fruit and so yellowing of the leaves is not a cause for concern. Cutting off the dying leaves can help air to circulate around the plant and stop rot.
Older leaves become yellow over time because nutrients like nitrogen will go to the younger leaves where they are needed more. The edges of older leaves may become yellow because they have pores that secrete sap at night, which may have a mildly toxic effect on the edge of the leaves over time.
Yellow leaves could be a sign of a nutrient deficiency and doing a soil test can determine which nutrient is lacking. Pumpkin plants need plenty of nutrients and moist, well-drained soil. Nitrogen is one essential plant nutrient and if you water the plants too much, this washes nitrogen out of the soil, making it unavailable to the plant.
Spreading a layer of aged manure around plants without touching the stem helps to preserve the moisture in the soil and give the plant extra nutrients. When watering pumpkin plants, it is important for the ground to be moist but it shouldn’t be sodden.
Just as much as over-watering pumpkin plants can be a problem, under-watering is not good either. Pumpkins typically need to be watered once a week. This usually needs to increase to twice a week when the summer heat is at its peak. If the vines and leaves are turning yellow and starting to droop in the heat, they could need some extra watering.
A number of different pests such as squash vine borers, spider mites and whiteflies can cause pumpkin leaves to turn yellow. The pests live on the leaves and stem of the plant, sucking sap from them. When squash vine borers live inside the stem, the plant is unable to take in enough nutrients. You will find yellowish-brown excrement near the base of the plant because the borers push it out through holes in the stem. Spider mites usually make fine webs under the leaves. Whiteflies are tiny, white insects that fly up in a cloud if disturbed.
You need to check your pumpkin plants every week for any signs they are being eaten by pests. There are various methods you can use to control pests, such as using different types of sprays – natural or chemical-based. Removing plant debris over winter can also help to control pests and keep them healthy throughout the season.
Various diseases can cause yellow leaves, such as sudden wilt, downy mildew, or verticillium wilt. When pumpkin roots are infected with sudden wilt, they often turn darker and more straw-colored than healthy roots. Plants die quickly from sudden wilt. Downy mildew can cause yellow spots on the upper leaves of the pumpkin plant and gray growth on the underside of leaves. Verticillium wilt causes the inside of roots and stems to turn light brown and the crown leaves to turn yellow before the plant eventually dies.
To help prevent these diseases, you should rotate your pumpkin to a new growing area every year. Remove plant debris and do not overwater the plants.
It’s best to water pumpkin plants in the morning so that the leaves have time to dry by nightfall. Never work with pumpkins when the leaves are wet and keep all your equipment sterilized to prevent the spread of disease.
Temperatures plummet in winter and frost can occur, depending on location, climate, and landscape factors. Clear skies and falling afternoon temperatures are usually the right conditions for frost. Freezes occur in very cold weather and damage is more severe than that of frost.
Farmers are always very conscious of weather conditions and have ways to prepare for severe weather to reduce damage to crops. One of the methods they use is to spray crops with water which may seem like a paradoxical action. To understand why it works, it is necessary to understand more about water and what happens when it changes from a liquid to a solid.
Water vapor in the atmosphere changes to a solid as it reaches freezing point, forming a thin layer on solid surfaces called frost. Frost usually looks like small white crystals when it appears on the ground. Frost can coat objects as they become colder than the surrounding air.
Frost occurs more in low-lying areas because of the fact that warm air rises and cool air sinks because it contains more water molecules. The cool air collects and valleys and front forms. This usually happens overnight when the air temperature is cooler and the frost often melts quickly when the sun rises.
When farmers need to determine the suitability of a crop in a specific farming area, among many other important factors, they also have to consider the potential for frost. Frost can damage crops, destroying plants or fruits. Farmers may have entire fields of crops destroyed by a few frosty nights.
Cold damage occurs when crops are exposed to low temperatures and the lower the temperature, the more damage occurs. Frost damage may have an effect on the entire plant or affect only a small part of plant tissue, which reduces the overall product quality. A light frost is usually short-lived and may not cause much damage.
Damage can occur directly when ice crystals form inside the cells or indirectly when ice forms inside the plant but outside the cells. The extent of damage due to freezing inside the cells depends on how fast the temperature drops and to which level it cools before freezing.
When ice forms on the outside of leaves at temperatures from 0°C to -2°C, they become dry and brittle. Freezing damage occurs when the temperatures are below -2°C. At this temperature, ice crystals form inside the plant tissue and rupture the cell walls and membranes.
Farmers who spray their crops with water are taking advantage of the transfer of energy that happens when water changes state. Water contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom is slightly negative and the hydrogen atoms are positive so they tend to stay together and form hydrogen bonds. When ice melts into liquid, it expends energy as the hydrogen bonds need to break. When placing ice cubes in a glass of water, the ice melts and the original liquid cools. The water cools because it expends energy to accomplish the phase change.
The same thing occurs when water converts into solid ice. Energy is released when hydrogen bonds begin to form and water solidifies. This is called the latent heat of fusion. The ice that builds upon the plants insulates them from the colder surrounding air temperature.
When temperatures go below freezing, fruit on citrus trees can freeze, which affects its quality. When the frost is expected, managers of citrus orchards often spray trees to keep them wet with water near 0 °C. Paradoxically, the cold water effectively provides heat to the trees. There is no temperature change as the water freezes at 0 °C so the heat released is called latent heat because it is “hidden” heat or heat that is not evident. Water in the cells freezes at a little below 0 °C but if trees are watered with water at 0 °C, the heat released as ice forms on the fruit actually prevents damage.
If you are looking for the best electric fence voltage, then look no further.
The best way to keep your animals in is with an electric fence. There are many different voltages that can be used. It all depends on what you want to do with it and how much money you have available to spend.
You need to make sure that whatever type of voltage that you choose will work great for your needs without being too high or too low for what you need it for. We will give you some notes when you use the electric fence effectively and safely.
Electric fences are used for both agricultural purposes and home security. Essentially, an electric fence is made up of several wires running parallel to each other at a short distance apart. When an animal comes into contact with the fence, they receive a shock from one or several of the wires. The strength and height of the fence are what determine how much voltage is in an electric fence.
An electric fence is made up of three basic components: the energizer, the conductors, and the grounding system.
The energizer is most commonly found in a canister or box that is attached to the fence. There are several types of energizers including the following: Solar-powered, Battery-powered, Battery- and solar-powered
Electrical wire powered via a wall outlet is also used for energizers but is less common.
The conductors carry the shock from the energizer to the animal that touches them and can vary in number and type. The most common conductors are aluminum, steel, and polywire.
The grounding system is used to ground the shock from the electric fence. It can be made up of a single grounding rod and wire, or multiple grounding rods and wires.
The voltage range of an electric fence can range from 2,000 to 10,000 volts, with 10,000 being the maximum permitted by international regulations.
Electric fences are rated by the strength of shock that is given. The USDA classifies an electric fence as any one of the following:
Class 1: This electric fence has an 8,000-volt maximum.
Class 2: This electric fence has a 4,000-volt maximum.
Class 3: This electric fence has a 1,500-volt maximum.
Class 4: This electric fence has a 750 voltage maximum.
To determine the voltage level of the electric fence, it is important to know the number of strands. A more common term for this measurement is “gauge.” An 18 gauge electric fence carries about 4,000 volts.
>>> Read More : Best Wire for Electric Fence
The easiest way to measure the voltage is by using a digital multimeter. If a multimeter is not available, then the easiest way to measure voltage in an electric fence is by using a 9V battery. Simply touch one end of the wire to either of the outermost metal parts on the battery and touch the other end to the innermost part on the battery. This can be repeated for each section of wire until a reading is received. The voltage reading received does not need to be exact.
How to measure voltage is in an electric fence?
The difference between high-tension and low-tension electric fences is the number of wires. A high-tension fence has three or more wires, while a low-tension fence has two or fewer. The greater the number of wires, the more powerful the shock from an electric fence becomes.
Low-tension electric fences are often used for smaller animals, such as dogs and horses, while high-tension fences are usually used with cattle or other large animals.
Electric fences are effective for keeping small animals in but are only effective to a point.
The first thing to know is that the electric fence is only as good as the ground it’s buried in. A weak electric current can be made stronger by simply putting more water on the ground (electrical current is carried better through water than dry soil).
The second thing to know is that electric fencing can be effective against animals that are hungry. If an animal is not hungry, it will simply walk through the electric fence because the pain feels basically the same no matter how hungry you are.
Third, if the electric fence is not grounded properly, it will have virtually no effect on animals. In theory, you can attach a wire directly to an animal’s leg, turn on the fence, and electrocuting the animal. If the wire is not grounded into the soil or another conductive medium, the animal will not get shocked.
Fourth, electric fencing is simply painful if an animal gets touched by it enough times. Electric fencing is not meant to kill the animal, it simply causes pain and hopefully teaches the animal to stay away from it. If an animal gets shocked enough times, it will learn to avoid the fence. This takes a very long time though.
Fifth, electric fencing is not effective for large areas. If you have a large area to fence off, it would be easier and more effective to use barbed wire or other types of fencing.
Sixth, electric fences are not effective when the weather gets bad. In wet climates, for example, a wire can be shorted by moisture. In hot climates, the wire can be shorted by tree branches or other things touching it. If the fence gets shorted too much, animals can walk right through it.
Seventh, electric fencing can be broken by very strong animals that are determined to get through. If an animal is hungry enough, it will eventually get through the fence. Dairy cows are known for breaking electric fences.
An electric fence is not a big hazard. The voltage traveling through the wires is high, but the current or amplification (amps) is extremely low (around 120 milliamps). It can’t even is able to kill a squirrel.
However, both animals and people can be shocked by the electric fence report that it is a painful experience. This is a dangerous warning sign to prevent animal escape. Electric fencing can be dangerous depending on how the circuit is created and what conditions exist in and around the fence. So, check your electric fence frequently to ensure everything runs smoothly and safely.
Electric fences can cause injury if they are not used properly. Many factors influence how large the shock is from the electric fence, including:
The age of the animal. As animals get older, their skin becomes thicker and they become more resistant to electric shock.
The breed of animal. Some animals, such as pigs and horses, are naturally less sensitive to electricity than other animals such as cattle.
For an electric fence, the number of ground rods needed is equal to twice the height (thickness) of his fence.
If you have a single wire fence that is 5 ft. high, then you need 10 ground rods to keep the voltage strong at the bottom of your fence. If you have a single wire fence that is 6 ft. high, then you need 12 ground rods to keep the voltage strong at the bottom of your fence.
Keep in mind to keep these ground rounds away from telephone lines and other utilities that could interfere.
When it comes to electric fencing, the voltage matters. The higher voltages will provide more protection and make your fence less likely to be breached by predators or livestock. However, lower voltages may cost you less in terms of installation costs but offer a shorter amount of time before an animal can breach the barrier again once they’ve been shocked.
We recommend talking with one of our experts about which level is best for your particular needs so that we can guide you towards installing a system that maximizes efficiency and minimizes risk. Give us a call today!